# Hypatia-Lovers

• The text and documents presented here were fully obtained from the site www.hypatia-lovers.com when it was active, only the text that is after a bullet was written by me (like this), the text without bullet were the comments by Khan or the pictures that were in his site (including the titles).

• This is a little picture of how the Site was.

• The logo of the site was a picture of Hypatia, Khan explained that the face of Hypatia is Xena (Lucy Lawless) and the body is a perfect proportion.

• The first thing I remember was a marathon with some mathematic questions, such as the sum of the first 100 numbers. The first answer was 5050, I guess the answer, I made my own Gauss formula xD. Every question correct give you the power to quit to Hypatia a clothe, the goal was to see her naked. If your answer was wrong there was a section to explain you how to solve the problem. This is Hypatia fully naked and a explanation about beauty… But first the comment:

Khan Amore’s Commentary on The Divine Proportion

When Khan Amore set forth to write this commentary, he decided that no such article would be complete without an illustration of the plurality of divine proportions which are to be found in Nature’s greatest work of art: the body of a beautiful woman. Braced for many expected hardships, he set aside an entire week for the purpose of dissecting his composite image of history’s greatest woman (the first female mathematician), then distorting it to be in conformity with the divine proportions listed above, finally to reassemble the figure, and thus to see what a body based entirely upon the divine proportion would look like. He was really quite fond of his original artwork and felt that any change in proportions would be a change for the worse, but he was curious to see what Hypatia (who loved the Divine Proportion) would look like if her bodily proportions were based entirely upon this harmonious proportionality of Nature.

• This was the picture of Hypatia

Hypatia of Alexandria

…Gasparo’s (?) signed sketch of Hypatia. The sketch was included as an insert in Elbert Hubbard’s pamphlet, Little Journeys to the Homes of Great Teachers, Volume 23, No. 4, published in October of 1908. Although this artist’s conception was created many centuries after Hypatia’s death, it is the one most often used to represent this great (yet always modest) woman.

• This was the biography of Hypatia by Khan:

### HypatiaCirca A.D. 375 – 415

Who was Hypatia?

In the estimation of some, Hypatia was history’s greatest woman. By all accounts stunningly beautiful, dazzlingly brilliant, yet always modest and kind, in an age when women were but chattel, she was history’s first female mathematician, as well as the first female astronomer, inventor, and natural philosopher.

She was the last keeper of the flame of knowledge in that great Alexandrian University — the Museum — the center of all the world’s learning. As the daughter of the last head professor of the Museum, she practically grew up in the Great Alexandrian Library, where all the world’s knowledge was kept, for in addition to being a child prodigy, she was a voracious reader. Already, by the age of womanhood in those days (i.e., twelve), she was considered to have assimilated the sum total of all significant human knowledge.

Books in those days, before the advent of printing, were in the form of hand-written scrolls, each one a priceless original, and when what was left of the Great Alexandrian Library was burned down by the Christians at the command of Christian emperor Theodosius “The Great” in the year 391, the books were all gone.

But Hypatia’s mind still contained the best of what was lost in the flames, and so, throughout the rest of her life, whenever someone was stumped by a problem, there were no more books to turn to — to see if some brilliant ancient Greek hadn’t already solved it — there was only Hypatia to turn to.

By the time her career as lecturing natural philosopher culminated, she was considered an oracle, and citizens and heads of state streamed in from all over the two empires to consult with her on important matters. Indeed, so great was her renown, that letters from all over the far-flung empires addressed simply “to the Philosopher” would unerringly find their way to her. Her life’s mission was to preserve the ancient knowledge of the brilliant Greeks, and to preserve their tradition of free-thinking rational thought, but the world around her was in upheaval, and the Christians were consolidating their power, turning the mind of man away from reason, to faith.

Hypatia was the last obstacle to the Church’s goal of world domination, and when the Christian mob under Saint Cyril came to make of her history’s greatest martyr for science — in the most gruesome way imaginable — the scholars left Alexandria in disgust, Alexandria ceased to be the world’s center of learning, the Dark Ages descended upon the world, and the mind of man stagnated for a thousand years.

Her life has all the heroic elements of a Greek tragedy, and if this were all that we knew, her place in history would already be assured, as a great tragic soul, standing alone against the coming darkness. But this is not all we know. Recent research suggests that the Christians did not succeed in destroying her life’s works, as was previously believed. Hypatia did not live in vain. It is now believed, by those competent to judge such matters, that the very primers of rational thought, Euclid’s the Elements, Ptolemy’s Almagest, and Diophantus’ Arithmetica have come down to us only through the Hypatian recension — that is, through copies made of Hypatia’s own hand-written notes on these masterpieces.

These books bear the very seed of the ancient Greek genius, and when these books were rediscovered, at the end of the Middle Ages, that seed sprouted and a New Age of secularism and rational thought dawned upon the world, a period in history which we today know as The Renaissance, meaning, quite literally, The Re-Birth — of the Classical Age of Greek wisdom.

Today, we are in effect, the children of the wise and rational Greeks, not of the ignorant superstitious medievals, in large part because Hypatia preserved and disseminated the seed of Greek wisdom. Although that seed lay dormant for a thousand years, eventually it sprouted and bore the fruits which produced the Modern Age, and in the end, the great woman triumphed, after all.

The waning of pagan Roman secular power coïncided precisely with the waxing of Christian theocracy. The pagans who were being stamped out felt that this was no random coïncidence, but that, once in power, Christianity caused the fall of the Roman world which it predicted.

This was also essentially the view of Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) as presented in his monumental work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire — a work which has widely been regarded as the greatest historical work in the English language. Rome “fell” when it became a Christian theocracy — when all those in power trembled before the cross, believing that the divinely-decreed end of the world was near. When the Roman Empire “fell,” everyone at the helm was a Christian who felt that it was not this world, but the next, which mattered.

As we have seen, Hypatia’s life mission was simply to preserve the ancient knowledge of the brilliant Greeks, and to preserve their tradition of free-thinking rational thought. Surely, such a pursuit would not be a threat to anyone, you might think. But, surely, you would be wrong. The world in Hypatia’s time was in upheaval, and the Christians were consolidating their power, turning the mind of man away from reason, to faith.

Though she was highly revered in her time, Hypatia was not a Christian, and she stood at the epicenter of momentous earth-shaking events. The non-Christian Greek tradition of free-thinking which Hypatia strove to preserve and disseminate was perceived to be a political threat to the mind-controlling power of the Christian theocrats, and Hypatia came to be regarded as the last obstacle to the Church’s goal of world domination.

Everything not in line with Christian dogma was at the time being systematically eliminated by the Christians in power. First the Christians destroyed the full collection of books of the Great Library of Alexandria (housed in the Serapeum at the time), then they eliminated publicly-funded secular education, by shutting down the Museum for good, and finally the mob of monks under Saint Cyril came for Hypatia herself, and made of her history’s greatest martyr for science and Reason — in the most gruesome way imaginable.

The conflict which was occurring in Alexandria in Hypatia’s time was clearly the conflict between Church and State — a conflict which the Christians correctly assumed would be resolved when the separation between Church and State was removed. When an example was made of Hypatia, no non-Christian dared to challenge the authority of the Church (even in secular matters) and the separation between Church and State crumbled and fell, and the Church ruled the world. The result, of course, was that the mind of man stagnated for a thousand years, for, as history has shown, time and again, Religion stops a thinking mind.

When Hypatia — an eminent and beloved woman renowned for her un-Christian wisdom — was publicly assassinated for standing in the way of Christian political power, this sent a chilling message to anyone who had not yet converted. The prefect Orestes (even though he was baptized a Christian) disappeared after Hypatia’s murder and was never heard from again, leaving the Churchmen fully in control of even secular matters, and for the millennium that followed no one ever again dared to say, or write, or even think anything that was not in line with the views of the Churchmen in power.

Hypatia’s assassination was very public, as it was intended to send a message, and this butchery — carried out in a church — evidently achieved its goal, for the scholars fled Alexandria in shock and disgust, Alexandria ceased to be the world’s center of learning, the Dark Ages descended upon the world, and — with the Church finally in control of all — the mind of man stagnated for a thousand years.

Hypatia stood alone between the Age of Classical Greek Wisdom and the Dark Ages, and when she was snuffed out, so was the light of Reason, and the darkness of ignorance fell at last across the world. It was as if she was the very pivot upon which history turned. That is why Hypatia is regarded by some to be history’s greatest woman….

History does not record the year of Hypatia’s birth, and all estimates are nothing more than guesses — guesses which invariably reflect the bias of the person making the guess.

Most estimates — with the notable exception of Maria Dzielska’s — have placed the year of Hypatia’s birth in the range from A.D. 370 to 380. That is to say, most historians before Ms. Dzielska have regarded this to be a plausible range of years for Hypatia’s birth to have fallen in.

In fact, Charles Singer, in his book, A History of Scientific Ideas, specifies with a greater implied precision than any other, the year of Hypatia’s birth. He gives the year of her birth as A.D. 379 — a figure which was adopted for Khan Amore’s Hypatia, for it best suited the needs of his fiction.

• This is a section of the contributions of Greeks to our civilization:

List of the Greatest Contributions of Ancient Greek Culture to Human Civilization:

3. The ancient Greeks invented Logic. The science of logic was first formulated by Aristotle. Later investigations into this field served only to extend his work, but did not alter its basic principles. Logic is the science dealing with the principles of valid reasoning and argument. Aristotle devoted his attention almost exclusively to a priori or deductive logic, which derives the particular from the general, and this form of syllogistic reasoning served as the primary tool of thought which enabled the development of Euclidean Geometry, which in turn continues to serve as the foundation of mathematics in general. (The fuller development of logic’s inductive form had to await the arrival of Francis Bacon and John Stuart Mill.) Again, Logic may be defined as the Science of Reasoning, or the Science of the Laws of Thought. The laws of thought are natural laws, like gravity, with which we have no power to interfere, or to change, as we can do with man-made laws. Logic is quite simply the most powerful tool of thought in man’s possession. It enables us to determine with complete certainty, whether a given proposition is correct or incorrect, from the form of the argument itself, without even knowing any of the particulars. To illustrate the power of this tool of reasoning, consider the well-known syllogism: 1) All men are mortal. 2) Socrates is a man. Therefore, 3) Socrates is mortal. We may not know whether or not all men are mortal, or whether Socrates is in fact a man, but Logic assures us with complete certainty that if these two premises are correct, then the conclusion (i.e., that Socrates is mortal) is without a doubt correct, too. The logical, rational, Greek mode of thought disappeared from the face of the Earth right around the time of Hypatia’s brutal public assassination by a band of Christian monks under the command of Saint Cyril. At that critical juncture in history, when the Last Keeper of the Flame of Greek Knowledge was snuffed, Faith finally vanquished Reason, and for a thousand benighted years the mind of man stagnated and wallowed in the violence and madness of religious superstition.

4. The ancient Greeks invented Science. (this statement can be disputed somewhat, Latter-day Saints should see the Book of Abraham as to how astronomy was restored). Not this science or that science, mind you, but science in general. The word itself derives from the Latin Scientia, from scire, “to know,” although this derivation is misleading, for science is by no means Roman in origin. The literal meaning of the word Science is “knowledge,” but the term is really taken to mean “a systematic body of knowledge of the physical Universe and all it contains, derived, formulated, and accumulated in accordance with logical and scientific principles.” Science may be divided into three types: 1) Applied Science, a discipline which uses the methods and findings of science solely for the practical purpose of developing and producing new technology, products, or structures, 2) Natural Science, a study dealing with material phenomena, and based mainly on observation, experiment, and induction (as in chemistry and biology), and 3) Pure Science, a pursuit of truth or knowledge depending on logical deductions from self-evident truths (as in the fields of mathematics or logic) without overriding concern for practical applications. It should come as no surprise that the same people that gave us logic should also give us science, which relies so heavily on logic. Mind you, some attempts at the systemization of knowledge were made in the older civilizations of ancient Egypt and Babylonia — attempts which included the designation of units of measure, the development of a simple arithmetic and geometry used mainly for land surveying, and the elaboration of a calendar based on the observed periodicity of astronomical events, but the Egyptians and Chaldeans, clever as they were, did not use logical reasoning as a general method of discovering Truth as did the Greeks. The earliest peoples to attempt to discover the causes of natural phenomena through observation and reasoning were the Ionian Natural Philosophers of ancient Greece, including Pythagoras of Samos, who derived the earliest system of geometry. Later Greeks, including Plato and Aristotle, largely abandoned the observational method of the Ionians in favor of metaphysics, although Aristotle did not discard the observational method entirely, for he did attempt biological experimentation. In the 3rd Century B.C. (in the “Alexandrian Age”) the Alexandrians Aristarchus and Hipparchus applied scientific methods to the study of astronomy and Archimedes devised the elementary principles of mechanics and hydrostatics, thus laying the groundwork for the development of both Physics and Calculus by Isaac Newton almost nineteen centuries later. Indeed, some of the findings of the ancient Greek Natural Philosophers have been incorporated without alteration into modern science. Even today, just as every beginning student of Mathematics must still learn the Pythagorean Theorem, so every beginning student of Science and Engineering is still taught Archimedes’ Hydrostatic Principle, and Archimedes’ principles of levers and compound pulleys. Mind you, Archimedes did not invent the lever. That tool has been in use from time immemorial — even an ape may use a stick as a lever — but it is one thing to use or even to contrive a device, and quite another to lay bare its exact mathematical principles, and to follow these principles to their logical conclusions. This is what Science does, and this type of logical analysis is the gift that the ancient Greeks gave to the world. Indeed, this was the whole trend of the Greek mind. As Edith Hamilton puts it in her excellent work, The Greek Way to Western Civilization, “To be versed in the ways of nature means that a man has observed outside facts and reasoned about them. He has used his powers not to escape from the world but to think himself more deeply into it. To the Greeks the outside world was real and something more, it was interesting. They looked at it attentively and their minds worked upon what they saw. This is essentially the scientific method. The Greeks were the first scientists and all science goes back to them.” After the Church gained ascendancy, and religious Faith ruled the world, this rational, free-thinking, quintessentially Greek mode of thought disappeared from the face of the Earth for nearly a thousand years. Throughout the Dark Ages and Middle Ages, when the Church ruled Europe, Science made little advance other than in the work of the Arabian alchemists. Then, near the close of the Middle Ages, when those few surviving earlier works of the ancient Greek scientists were re-discovered (having been preserved in Moslem libraries), Greek rationality came once again into the world, and the foundations of modern science were laid on this substratum of ancient Greek wisdom.

5. The ancient Greeks invented Lyrics. The lyric was originally a song to be sung to the accompaniment of the lyre — an ancient, three-stringed to twelve-stringed (usually seven-stringed) instrument having two horns and a sounding board made of a tortoise shell covered with bull’s hide. The poet and musician, Terpander (“Delighter of Men”), who was born on Lesbos, is known as the first Greek lyric poet because he was the first to set poems to music. Having killed a man in a brawl, this inaugurator of the Great Age of Lesbos was exiled, and found it convenient to accept an invitation to live in Sparta. There he lived the remainder of his days, teaching music and training choruses. It is said that his life ended at a drinking party, when he was singing. It seems that one of his auditors threw a fig at him while his mouth was open wide to sing one of the extra notes he had added to the music scale, and this edible token (whether of reward or criticism) lodged in his windpipe and choked him to death in the very ecstasy of song. (Because praise and criticism were more likely to be expressed physically in earlier times, when a performer “died” on stage in those days, he really died.) Terpander was followed later in the 7th Century B.C. by those other famed lyricists of Lesbos, Alcaeus, who invented the Alcaic Strophe, and Sappho, the greatest poetess of all time, whose lyrical love poems are the most sublime ever written.

6. The ancient Greeks invented the field of study we call History. The word itself means “investigation” in Greek. Of course, since the end of Pre-Historic times, men had been recording chronicles, legends, and myths, but there is a difference between story-telling and unbiased, unjudgmental, strictly factual history, and the man who is called the “Father of History” was a Greek. His name was Herodotus. Born in Fifth Century B.C. Halicarnassus (a Doric Greek colony in Southwest Asia Minor, which at the time was under the domination of Persia), Herodotus wandered the world in search of knowledge, enjoyment, wonder, and beauty, recording all he saw in a delightfully selfless, unfiltered and unprejudiced style. He was the first sight-seer in the world, and perhaps the happiest one as well. His journeys practically reached the boundaries of the known world of his time, and he recorded the many wonders he saw in his book History — a term used for the first time by him, in our sense of the word. The hallmarks of Herodotus’ style were those of the ideal historian: the complete omission of personal bias, the unflagging allegiance to truth rather than dogma, and the complete suspension of judgment. His writing is without mannerism, without an iota of self-consciousness. It is always simple, direct, lucid, interesting, and readable. As an example of his open-mindedness, and of the care he always took to differentiate what was known from what was merely believed, of the West he wrote:

I am unable to speak with certainty. I can learn nothing about the islands from which our tin comes, and though I have asked everywhere I have met no one who has seen a sea on the West side of Europe. The truth is no one has discovered if Europe is surrounded by water or not. I smile at those who with no sure knowledge to guide them describe the ocean flowing around a perfectly circular earth.”

Herodotus

This is an example of the way in which the Greek mind worked. The great river Ocean encircling the Earth had been described by Homer, the revered, even sacred authority, and by Hesiod, second only to Homer, and yet Herodotus without a qualm about impiety blithely declines to accept the truth of this assertion on authority, yet he is always mildly tolerant of other people’s views and never dogmatic about his own. Quite as characteristic of Herodotus is his matter-of-fact statement that the priestess at Delphi had been more than once bribed to give an oracle favorable to one side in a dispute. This was attacking the Greek holy of holies — like accusing the Pope of taking bribes. Herodotus had a great respect for the Delphic oracle, but to his mind that was no reason to suppress a charge which he had investigated, and which the evidence supported — and it was certainly no reason to refrain from investigation. As Edith Hamilton put it, “When an authority, no matter how traditionally sacrosanct, came into conflict with a fact, the Greeks preferred the fact. They had no inclination to protect ‘sound doctrine taught of old.’ A new force had come into the world with Greece, the idea of Truth to which personal bias and prejudice must yield.”

Lo! Sin by sin and sorrow by sorrow —

And who the end can know?

The slayer of today shall die tomorrow —

The wage of wrong is woe.

While Time shall be, while Zeus is lord,

His law is fixed and stern;

On him that wrought shall vengeance be poured —

The tides of doom return.

Sophocles

As the great classicist, Edith Hamilton summarized the Greek style of writing: “…The lover of great literature when he is confronted all unprepared with the Greek way of writing, feels chilled at first, almost estranged. The Greeks wrote on the same lines as they did everything else. Greek writing depends no more on ornament than the Greek statue [or the Greek temple] does. It is plain writing, direct, matter-of-fact. It often seems, when translated with any degree of literalness, bare, so unlike what we are used to as even to repel … Clarity and simplicity of statement, the watchwords of the thinker were the Greek poets’ watchwords too … The Greeks were realists, but not as we use the word. They saw the beauty of common things and were content with it … The Greeks liked facts. They had no real taste for embroidery, and they detested exaggeration … The things men live with, noted as men of reason note them, not slurred over or evaded, not idealized away from actuality, and then perceived as beautiful — that is the way Greek poets saw the world.”

• This is the Khan’s comment of Legalty:

A note regarding the legality some of the images archived here, and appearing elsewhere at this site:

Don’t worry. Nothing that you view at this site should put you at risk, legally (in the U.S., at least.)

Here is why:

United States Code Title 18, Part 1, Chapter 110, Section 2256 defines “child pornography” as any visual depiction of a person under the age of 18 engaged in “sexually explicit conduct,” and defines “sexually explicit conduct” as “graphic sexual intercourse” (of any sort); or “graphic or simulated bestiality, masturbation, or sadistic or masochistic abuse, or graphic or simulated lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area.” This rather disgustingly-worded “law” further indicates that “graphic … means that a viewer can observe any part of the genitals or pubic area of any person or animal during any part of the time that that the sexually explicit conduct is being depicted.”* This “crime definition” (which is often referred to as “18 US code 2256” for short) is a “law” which is clearly unconstitutional (as it violates Article 1 of the Bill of Rights), and hence, a law which is in itself illegal, and is a serious threat to civil rights and to freedom — and therefore deserves to be vigorously challenged and rescinded — yet it is a “law” which at present is ignored only at great peril. And so, because we do not wish to endanger our visitors, and in consideration of the fact that we can do the cause of fighting for Freedom of Expression more good out of the governmental dungeons and torture-chambers than in them, none of the images appearing on this site will violate the letter of the current so-called “law” referred to as 18 US Code 2256. (If we see that “laws” such as this are unconstitutional and a threat to Freedom, we mustn’t foolishly ignore them — we must work to get them repealed!)

Note, however, that 18 US code 2256 does not attempt to make nude imagery involving minors illegal — but only prohibits depictions of minors “engaged in sexually explicit conduct” or who are “lasciviously” exhibiting their genitals (and we will not be uploading images which can be described in this way to this website). Even according to this (unconstitutional) “law,” there is nothing whatsoever illegal in nude images of children as long as they are not “engaged in sexually explicit conduct,” and are not “lasciviously” exhibiting their genitals. Those who doubt this statement should watch the perennial video clips of nude children on the prime-time network television show “America’s Funniest Home Videos” or should visit Amazon.com and order a copy of the movie, “Pretty Baby” (starring a lovely pre-pubescent and often nude
Brooke Shields.)

Article 1 of the Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution guarantees us all the inalienable right to Freedom of Expression. We must know, defend, and exercise our constitutionally-guaranteed rights, or they WILL be taken away — by our own government. And if we no longer dare to exercise our constitutionally-guaranteed Liberties, then we have already given them up, and never deserved Freedom in the first place!

— Khan Amore

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• This is the document guilty that made me get in to the Page, is the document about black Powder.

Fortunately for us, a formula for Greek Fire has survived through a passagefrom the Eighth Century* book of Marcus Graecus, Liber Ignium ad Comburendos Hostes — a passage which has come down to us through a quotation by the Ninth Century Arabian physician, Mesue: “Greek Fire is made as follows: take sulfur, tartar, sarcocolla, pitch, melted saltpeter, petroleum oil, and oil of gum, boil all these together, impregnate tow [i.e., the coarse or broken part of flax orhemp, prepared for spinning] with the mixture, and the material is ready to be set on fire. This fire cannot be extinguished by urine, or by vinegar, or by sand … Flying fire may be obtained in the following manner: take one part of colophony [rosin], the same of sulfur, and two parts of saltpeter. Dissolve the pulverized mixture in linseed oil, or better in oil oflamium. Finally, the mixture is placed in a reed or a piece of wood which has been hollowed out.When it is set on fire, it will fly in whatever direction one wishes, there to set everything on fire.
There, will that do? He’s probably just guessing though, obviously.